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History Groups of Two

Guess the members of these notable groups of two from history.
Quiz by Quizmaster
First submittedFebruary 3, 2016
Last updatedNovember 14, 2018
Times taken16,947
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Cold War military alliances
Warsaw Pact
Oldest universities in England
First people to summit Everest
Edmund Hillary
Tenzing Norgay
Twin founders of Rome
Authors with last name Shelley
Countries lived in by Marie Curie
Former names of Istanbul
Biggest cities originally founded
by the Dutch
New York City
Mesopotamian Empires
(911 BC - 539 BC)
Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Babylonian Empire
African countries not colonized
by Europe
German capitals (1945-1990)
East Berlin
Most famous Viking explorers
Erik the Red
Leif Erikson
"Communist Manifesto" authors
Friedrich Engels
Karl Marx
Hebrew Kingdoms, 800 BC
Roman leaders who Cleopatra had
children with
Julius Caesar
Mark Antony
Cities ending in -grad beseiged
Cities that fought the Punic Wars
Founders of Cubism
Georges Braque
Pablo Picasso
Nicknames of the opposing sides
of the English Civil War
Rival factions of Italy, circa 1200's
level 81
Feb 4, 2016
I like how guessing the surname of one viking gets you the other.
level 83
Feb 5, 2016
Didn't the Italians colonize in Ethiopia in the 1930s?
level 49
Feb 5, 2016
They colonized Eritrea, and when they moved farther in than the border, the Ethiopian Emperor saw it as an invasion.
level 83
May 2, 2016
And yet the Italians established colonies, in Ethiopia. Sure, they were repulsed a few years later, but does that mean it didn't happen? Really just playing devil's advocate. I'll bow to conventional wisdom... and the Ethiopian tourism department.
level 37
May 2, 2016
Gaining some footholds isn't the same as colonizing a country, I would say. To earn that credit you would need full control.
level 45
May 4, 2016
Not really. Typically colonisation refers to the 19th century scramble for Africa and long term settlement after that. Italy in the 1930s was more of an occupation than colonisation, though I suppose if they'd been left in power there long enough it would've been. Basically Italy "colonised" Ethiopia the same way that Germany "colonised" Poland, France etc during the war.
level 64
Feb 21, 2016
Am I wrong, or were supporters of the king in the English Civil War also called Royalists?
level 49
Feb 22, 2016
Yes, but I think that doesn't count as a 'nickname' here. Tried that one myself though.
level 67
May 2, 2016
If I knew how to spell Guelphs and Ghibellines, that would be awesome!
level 76
May 2, 2016
Oh Liberia... I thought that was one of the most obviously wrong answers. But I guess the key word here was "Europe."

I visited Ethiopia. They like to brag about being the only Africans never colonized. Though this seems like a hollow boast, as the Italians did control most of the country, albeit briefly. Most of the oldest buildings in Addis Ababa have an Italian signature. They still call the downtown area the Piazza. And they still have restaurants serving pizza everywhere. Doesn't seem very uncolonized.
level 37
May 2, 2016
By that criterium the USA has also been colonized by Italy.
level 65
May 2, 2016
Never forget the Italian conquest of America!
level 38
Mar 6, 2017
To colonize is to impose your will, government, religion, politics and culture upon the place that you usurp. Ethiopia may still serve pizza, but that does not mean that they embraced the culture, religion or politics of Italy into the mainstream.
level 76
May 2, 2016
SEATO was a Cold War military alliance.
level 54
May 3, 2016
Wikipedia doesn't seem to suggest Jakarta was founded by the Dutch. Also, accept just "Leif" for Leif Eriksson, and just "Roundhead" and "Cavalier" (minus the plural s at the end?) And NATO and Warsaw Pact are fairly obvious, but might be better to make it more clear as so not to refer to SEATO, etc.
level 50
May 4, 2016
I'm amazed that so many more people know Mary Shelley than Percy Bysshe. He'd be so pissed off!
level 76
Aug 23, 2016
Frankenstein is pretty famous in popular culture. Percy Shelley perhaps not so.
level 67
Feb 17, 2017
"Look on my works ye mighty and despair!" Nothing beside remains.
level 44
Sep 12, 2017
Can you accept Julius for Julius Ceaser
level 38
Dec 5, 2017
As in Orange Julius or Julius Irving, perhaps?
level 38
Dec 9, 2017
Why accept NATO, but require Warsaw Pact?
level 65
Dec 27, 2017
as long as they are Italians, please accept the Italian names: guelfi and ghibellini
level 78
Aug 3, 2018
I can only assume that the Ghibellines' mascot was Totoro.
level 76
May 2, 2019
Besieged is the correct spelling.