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Most Populous Countries in 1800

Name the most populous countries and empires in the year 1800.
Only countries that were sovereign in the year 1800
Population includes all territories and possessions
Last updated: November 14, 2018
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Population
Country or Empire
328 m
China
115 m
British Empire
75 m
Maratha Empire
38 m
French Empire
35 m
Russian Empire
29 m
Japan
26 m
Ottoman Empire
25 m
Spanish Empire
24 m
Holy Roman Empire
23 m
Habsburg Empire
Population
Country or Empire
11 m
Prussia
9.5 m
Joseon
9.3 m
Portuguese Empire
6.7 m
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
6.5 m
Annam
6.2 m
Dutch Empire
5.3 m
United States
4.2 m
Siam
3.5 m
Persia
3.2 m
Burma
+2
level ∞
Aug 29, 2016
This article didn't use to exist on Wikipedia but some heroic people put it together!
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_population_in_1800
+2
level 69
Aug 29, 2016
Very interesting list, indeed. It appears to me, however, that there is some double counting involved - some territories are listed as parts of the Holy Roman Empire and also as parts of some other country.
+1
level 75
Aug 29, 2016
Heroic guessers. In the Talk page, one of those heroic guessers puts the population of the entire Indian subcontinent at less than 150 million. http://www.populstat.info/Asia/indiac.htm asserts that that is far too low.
+1
level ∞
Aug 29, 2016
Definitely huge speculation! But I would say 150 million is fair. China, for example, had a population of below 100 million for most of its history until a population explosion started around 1400.
+1
level 67
Oct 17, 2017
Missed the USA..........lol.
+1
level 31
Mar 13, 2019
Ireland Had 5 Million People Back Then so you should add it
+1
level 55
Mar 18, 2019
Part of the British Empire
+1
level 80
Aug 30, 2016
Wow. Never heard about that Korean empire before.
+1
level 27
Sep 29, 2016
joseon is not an empire, it is what they call Korea before
+1
level 59
Sep 29, 2016
They still call Korea Joseon (Chosun) in North Korea.
+1
level 75
Sep 29, 2016
Hangul I think in South Korea. Hanguk? I think that's the language.
+1
level 67
Sep 29, 2016
Hanguk is the South Korean name for Korea (also the adjective and the name, with -eo, of the language). Hangul is the writing system.
+1
level 55
Sep 15, 2017
Joseon was the name of two different dynasties in Korea. And, as WhiskeyTangoFoxtrot said, it is what North Korea now calls itself. As for everything else, what dasubergreek said is correct.
+1
level 73
Aug 30, 2016
Is there a difference between the Holy Roman Empire and the Roman Empire? I tried Roman and it didn't work.
+3
level 54
Sep 1, 2016
There is, the Holy Roman Empire was not really Holy, definitely not Roman and not an empire, really.
+1
level ∞
Sep 1, 2016
:)
+1
level 82
Sep 1, 2016
You gave us a topic. We'll discuss while you get over your verklempt attack.
+1
level 74
Sep 29, 2016
For the win.
+1
level 75
Sep 29, 2016
After the Roman Empire spent 1500 years ruling over pretty much all of Europe and the known Western world, and representing everything the West knew about civilization and governance... for a very long time almost everyone claimed to be successors to the Romans. That's why you've got tsars/czars in Russia, kaisers in Germany, kaysers in Ottoman Turkey, etc. And why the Frankish kings thought it important to establish their legitimacy by making their own claim on that legacy (and being crowned by the Pope, thus their holiness).
+1
level 54
Sep 1, 2016
"Only countries that were sovereign in the year 1800" was HRE really sovereign?
+1
level ∞
Sep 1, 2016
Yeah, I know. They had a loose suzerainty and not really administrative control. I'm leaving it in, though.
+1
level 69
Sep 5, 2016
I didn't guess HRE since I'd already got the Habsburgs and the HRE was under Habsburg rule until 1806.
+2
level 49
Sep 29, 2016
I don't think it should be left in, since it was dissolved 6 years later and hadn't practically been a country for years. Instead it was a loose union of principalities, bishoprics and duchies that didn't have any sort of unity among each other.
+1
level 67
Sep 29, 2016
Admit that you were just looking for an excuse to use the word "suzerainty". :-P
+1
level 64
Sep 29, 2016
That's also why I did not get Prussia . I thought (I do not know if I am right and am too lazy to look it up) that it was in the HRE and would not count. Guess I was wrong
+1
level 58
Oct 1, 2016
Prussia has a complicated history. Historical Prussia was a duchy in Poland. Eventually through the vagaries of dynastic politics it was established as an independent duchy, and around the same time another branch of the Hohenzollern ruling family (who were also the dukes of Brandenburg) ended up in charge of Prussia. In 1701 or thereabouts Frederick I was allowed by the Holy Roman Emperor to call himself King IN Prussia (i.e. in the independent duchy, but not in Brandenburg which was still feudally subject to the Emperor). Frederick II the Great in 1772 was powerful enough to declare himself King OF Prussia, having taken over the various other bits of Prussia under direct rule (instead of owning them as a subject of the Emperor). Shortly after this, the HRE dissolved entirely. Re: Habsburgs, there was a Habsburg Emperor in the HRE, but the Habsburgs were very extensive and also ruled Spain and Austria-Hungary (which also has a complicated relationship with the HRE).
+1
level 39
Sep 29, 2016
Is there a time period when China really WAS NOT the most crowded one?
+1
level 75
Sep 29, 2016
The geographic area that contemporary humans conceive of as "China" is a huge and diverse place full of several different fertile river valleys that have been teeming with people for a very long time. However, civilization begin much earlier in the West (in Mesopotamia, the Fertile Crescent, and Egypt). Large population centers (cities) arose there first, and several large land empires came to be in the history of Western Civilization that at the time certainly eclipsed any kingdom or dynasty of China during the same period. Notably, the Achaemenid Empire and Sassanid Empire (both Persian, though the latter was a partially Hellenistic empire, too) are estimated to have contained 44% and 37% of the entire world's population, at their greatest extent, respectively. The Roman Empire in the 2nd century contained about 36% of the world's population. And the British Empire in 1900 ruled over approximately 420 million people, compared to Qing China's 415.
+1
level 39
May 7, 2017
Can you show me the source you get 420 million people? According to wikipedia, the population of british empire in 1900 was 383 000 000, which was way below qing empire.
+1
level 75
Sep 29, 2016
Additionally, there was no China when Egypt's Old Kingdom reached a population perhaps as high as 2 million people. The Xia Dynasty, which historians don't even agree existed, didn't begin until around 2100 BC, if at all. The Egyptian Old Kingdom is older than that. The Shang Dynasty began in China 500 years later.
+1
level 39
May 7, 2017
Because there was no written record at that time, we can never know the exact population of china during Egypts old kingdom, so we cannot know which one was more crowded.
+1
level 75
Sep 29, 2016
Got everything except Burma...
+1
level 43
Sep 29, 2016
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies? Odd name for an empire...
+1
level 51
Sep 29, 2016
Well kingdom, of sicily and southern italy. An odd name for an odd place really, the kingdom was started by Normans and was a Spanish/Habsburg possession for a long time
+1
level 58
Sep 29, 2016
I can totally understand not accepting Italy for Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, because it's not the same thing at all, but I wish the quiz did because I'd have only missed Burma.
+1
level 75
Sep 29, 2016
I got it by typing in "Naples"
+2
level 55
Sep 29, 2016
The Qing dynasty flag featured in this quiz was not adopted until 1889
+1
level 67
Sep 29, 2016
Forgot America. Quite how, I don't know.
+1
level 49
Sep 29, 2016
Funny how a third of the world's population at that time (approx. 1 billion) was chinese, and all the great powers of the world were european.
+1
level 75
Sep 29, 2016
That's all thanks to the Industrial Revolution. In the couple centuries prior to this, Europe had actually fallen pretty far behind the Far East for the first time in history. Then... the Industrial Revolution (1760-1840)... and they rocketed ahead.
+1
level 28
Sep 29, 2016
Interesting quiz. Didn't get the Kingdom of Two Sicilies and Burma. Funny how I guessed Vietnam. Also, who doesn't know the HRE? I guess Napoleon fixing the country up wasn't enough for people to remember them.
+1
level 58
Sep 30, 2016
I think it's a bit suspect to have the holy roman empire in here at the same time as the austro-hungarian empire, prussia, the kingdom of the two sicilies, etc. The Holy Roman Empire wasn't long for this world in 1800 and, perhaps more compellingly, was not really sovereign over the places listed.
+1
level 38
Jun 2, 2017
Spain,Portugal,Netherlands,Persia
+1
level 53
Jan 28, 2019
The Kingdom of Two Sicilies was born in 1816, until then there were Naples and Sicily, whose crown was wear by the same King.
+1
level 66
Feb 26, 2019
While I only just learned that Prussia was never officially part of the Holy Roman Empire (and I'm German!), it seems (according to other Wikipedia articles) that Austria was, until it became it's own Empire in 1804. Or does "Habsburg Empire" mean more than just Austria(-Hungary)?
+1
level 32
Apr 6, 2019
Mein Gott. How can I miss the HRE lol.