Highest mountains by type

What does 'highest mountain' mean exactly? Actually there are many different contenders for this title, depending on how you measure it. Do you know the mountains that are the highest in their classifications? Many are very surprising, and the ones in this quiz aren't just limited to this planet!
No need to type 'Mount' or 'Mt.' when answering, just the name will do.
'Elevation' is height above sea level, the centre of the earth, the Lunar Mean or the Geodetic datum; and 'Height' is maximum height from base to summit.
Some extraterrestrial answers are approximate.
Includes 'shortest mountain' too.
Quiz by HelveticaBold
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Last updated: February 7, 2018
First submittedFebruary 25, 2016
Times taken18
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Hint
Elevation
Height
Answer
Highest mountain above sea-level
8,848 m
5,200 m
Mount Everest
Highest free standing mountain
5,895 m
4,900 m
Mount Kilimanjaro
Tallest mountain from base to summit
4,205 m
>10,000 m tall
Mauna Kea
Tallest mountain from base to summit entirely above sea level
7,788 m
>6,000 m tall
Rakaposhi
Highest mountain outside Asia
6,961 m
 
Aconcagua
Highest unclimbed mountain
7,570 m
 
Gangkhar Puensum
Both highest mountain below the 'Snow line' & the highest active volcano in the world
6,893 m
2,000 m
Ojos del Salado
Highest mountain on an island
4,884 m
 
Puncak Jaya
Highest Fault-Block mountain
4,421 m
3,071 m
Mount Whitney
Highest mountain before Everest was formed
4,401.2 m
2,772 m
Mount Elbert (likely)
Highest manmade hill
301.8 m
594.8 m
Sophienhöhe
Shortest registered mountain in the world
148 m
43 m
Mount Wycheproof
Highest mountain from the centre of the Earth
6,268 m
12,756 km
Mount Chimborazo
Tallest mountain on the moon
 
5,310 m
Mons Huygens
Highest point on the moon
10,786 m
 
Selenean summit
Highest mountain of any planet in the solar system
21,230 m
 
Olympus Mons
Highest mountain in the known solar system
22,000 m
 
Rheasilvia
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