Logical fallacies

In arguments and reasoning, many people make illogical assumptions and reach illogical conclusions, usually through something called a 'Logical Fallacy'. This can lead to both frustration and hilarity. Here is a quiz about some of the more commonly used logical fallacies. See how many you know :-)
This list is by no means totally comprehensive but covers some of the most commonly used or well known fallacies. I'd love to do more but felt this list was long enough.
There may be some other synonyms for these answers that I have left out, please inform me if so.
This quiz is intended to be eduacational if not a test of what you already know, I do hope you enjoy it! ^_^
Quiz by HelveticaBold
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Last updated: July 12, 2016
First submittedJuly 11, 2016
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Selective use of only small or a few snippets of evidence or things that look like evidence to reinforce an argument, perhaps even in the face of contrary evidence.
Cherry picking
Example: "Dr Stu Pidd published a study that proves that breathing kills you, therefore breathing should be banned."
Making a rhetorical statement that assumes the truth of the assertion you're attempting to prove.
Begging the Question
Example: "If you're so smart then what am I thinking right now?"
Latin for 'to the man', where someone personally attacks the arguer rather than the substance of their argument.
Ad hominem
Example: "You don't know what you're talking about because you're stupid."
Also know as the Bandwagon fallacy, which appeals to peer pressure or popular opinion rather than evidence.
Ad Populum
Example: "All the cool kids at school smoke and I wanted to be cool so I started smoking."
The misleading use of a term with more than one meaning or sense by glossing over which meaning is intended at a particular time.
Equivocation
Example: "2 wrongs don't make a right, but 3 lefts do."
If P, then Q; Q. Therefore, P.
Affirming the consequent
Example: "All elephants are pink; Nelly is an elephant. Nelly is pink."
If P, then Q. Not P. Therefore, not Q.
Denying the antecedent
Example: "Sugar is unhealthy; Diet Coke has no sugar. Diet Coke is healthy."
When someone concludes that an event causes another simply because it happened first
Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc
Example: "The cows we lying down when it was raining. Cows can control the weather."
C.S. Lewis' concept: "Assume that your opponent is wrong, and explain his error"
Bulverism
Example: "You would think that because you're racist."
A result of hindsight bias. It happens when someone claims they predicted an event after it occurred, i,e, "retroactive clairvoyance."
Postdiction
Example: "I will either fly or ruin that family's picnic."
A logical fallacy in which one reaches an unwarranted conclusion without considering all the facts.
Hasty Generalization
Example: "This year it was hotter than last year, therefore global warming accelerating rapidly".
Claiming that something may be true for one person, but not for someone else
Relativist fallacy
Where the options presented are limited (and/or mutually exclusive), and reasonable alternatives are omitted.
False dichotomy
Example: "If you are not with me then you are against me."
Also called a 'Camel's nose', where one thing will lead to another, much more serious thing.
Slippery slope
Example: "If we legalise gay marriage then people will start marrying lamps, and then chairs, and then there'll be a nuclear holocaust."
Covertly replacing an opponent's argument with a different proposition, and then to refute or defeat that false argument instead of the original proposition.
Strawman
Example: "We should spend less money on weapons." "So you want to leave use defenseless?"
Fallacy that reinterprets evidence in order to prevent the refutation of one's position.
No true Scotsman
Example: "You're not a feminist because a real feminist wouldn't say that."
When differences in data are ignored, but similarities are stressed, named after a joke where a Texan shoots a wall, and then paints a target where most bullet holes are closest together.
Texas sharpshooter fallacy
Idea by Nicholas Shackel (2005), where an arguer makes broad statements in one scenario, and then retreats to a highly defensible position when challenged. Named after a medieval structure.
Motte and Bailey
A self-evident truth that requires no proof and is therefore not questioned, or possibly even questionable.
Axiom
The human tendency to interpret meaningful patterns within random data.
Apophenia
The interpretation of specific shapes or sounds in random stimuli.
Pareidolia
+2
Level 74
Jul 11, 2016
Everyone should learn these - people would see through politicians far more easily and then the politicians would give up trying to use these techniques.
+1
Level 69
Jul 12, 2016
They're fascinating if not very useful to learn as you suggest ^_^ There are plenty more to learn but I updated it to include Cherry Picking, oh how could I forget Cherry Picking?! Hope you enjoyed.
+1
Level 59
Oct 1, 2018
Might want to double-check the example for affirming the consequent. Assuming that the last statement is the conclusion this is a logical proof. I'm not sure an axiom is a fallacy, as they are completely necessary for any logically valid argument of the absolute truth of something.
+1
Level 69
Oct 9, 2018
Okiedokey, this quiz needs some serious freshening up I think. Thank you.