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The scientific study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of Earth.
A pattern of lines on a chart or map, such as those representing latitude and longitude, which helps determine absolute location
The imaginary circle around the Earth halfway between the geographic poles which is assigned a latitude of zero degrees and is therefore used as a reference point for all other lines of latitude. It is the largest circumference of the Earth.
The broad lower course of a river where it enters the ocean and is affected by the tides
A vast, contiguous body of salt water covering more than 70% of the Earth's surface area and surrounding the continental landmasses, or a portion of this larger body of water that is divided and distinguished from the other portions, each of which is called an ____, by the presence of the landmasses.
Precipitation that results when moist air is lifted over a topographic barrier, such as a mountain range
Orographic or Relief
The collective non-living parts of the Earth: the lithosphere, the atmosphere, the cryosphere, and the hydrosphere.
A thick mass of ice resulting from compacted snow that forms when more snow accumulates than melts annually
A true-to-scale map of the Earth that duplicates its round shape and correctly represents areas, relative sizes, and shapes of physical features, distances, and directions.
An area of diminished precipitation on the lee (downwind) side of a mountain or mountain range
A natural watercourse, usually freshwater, that flows towards an ocean, sea, lake, another ____, or in some cases into the ground.
The height of an object in the atmosphere above sea level.
A geological fold that has an arch-like convex shape and its oldest beds near its center, often visible at the Earth's surface in exposed rock strata.
A collection of islands in a sea.
A bound collection of maps
The mixture of gases, aerosols, solid particles, and water vapor that envelops the Earth
Another name for physical geography
Any broad, flat expanse of land that generally does not show significant variation in elevation.
Half of the Earth, usually conceived as resulting from the division of the globe into two equal parts of either north and south or east and west.
Any landform that extends above the surrounding terrain is called a ___ is generally considered less steep than a mountain