## CCSS of USA Drops Defective Definition of Multiplication from Draft

After the American War of Independence, (from the British), Henry Billingsley's broken multiplication definition was defeated. Yet, the Billingsley Virus, BV1570, returned to reinfect arithmetical explanations. Would India's identity elements (one and zero) ever find their true place in modern mathematics pedagogies?

In 2010, the draft Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for mathematics in the USA featured Henry Billingsley’s defective definition of multiplication. Grade 3 children were to; **‘Understand that multiplication of whole numbers is repeated addition. For example, 5 × 7 means 7 added to itself 5 times.’** Regardless of causality or correlation, post-Devlin, some 250 years after France had rejected the MIRA meme, Multiplication Is Repeated Addition, Billingsley’s defective definition of multiplication, from 1570, was removed from a close to final draft CCSS of the USA.

SOURCE: Common Core State Standards For Mathematics, Grade 3, p. 19, 2010. Draft archived online at http://web.archive.org/web/20121203020359/http://www.edweek.org/media/25common_3.pdf

After the MIRA debate, the CCSS now says, ‘Interpret products of whole numbers, e.g., **interpret 5 × 7 as the total number of objects in 5 groups of 7 objects each**.’

See www.corestandards.org/Math/Content/3/OA/A/1/

(See also http://www.jonathancrabtree.com/mathematics/multiplication-postwar-independence/ and http://www.jonathancrabtree.com/mathematics/devlin-on-mira/)