3. The residents of Mecca hated Muhammad and wanted to kill him because he was a blasphemer. He was calling himself a prophet and claiming to be getting messages from god. People got killed for this all the time in the ancient world in primitive societies. Muhammad only avoided this fate because he was protected by his rich wife and influential uncle.
4. Yes I'm aware of the Quranic challenge... and... that challenge has been met about a billion times since then but Muslims won't acknowledge it.
6. there are different versions of the first revelation told in the hadith. Basic story is Muhammad was meditating in a cave as he sometimes did. Then an angel spoke to him. Confused he went home. And here some of the stories differ... some say Muhammad believed that he was crazy or getting messages from a demon, some say his wife convinced him otherwise and that he was a prophet and the voice was from god or Gabriel, and other stories say it was Khadija's cousin Waraqah. It really doesn't matter, does it? Khadija was his first convert and supporter. Obviously she was important in convincing him to spread the message.
You don't remember the details of a single long story and you claim there were 3 stories. Why can't Muhammad think he is crazy AND Khadijah convince him otherwise AND takes him to her cousin Waraqah ? That's the story found in Bukhari anyway.
yusra, nothing I said was nonsensical or even remotely hateful. Your interpretation shows your bias.
In the Muslim world, this is even harder than it is in the Christian world... and it's by no means easy in the Christian world! but probably 1000x more difficult in the Muslim umma. Because they simply do not have any serious scholarly tradition for examining the historicity of their religion apart from their religious traditions. And any ideas that contradict popular religious traditions are treated as blasphemy in most places. Contrary evidence is suppressed or destroyed. As happened in Christendom a long long time ago.
I suppose it's just one of those accidents of history that Indonesia, despite being spread across hundreds of islands, is one country, whereas the Middle East and North Africa are generally contiguous but are lots of small and middle-sized countries.
In terms of religion however it's quite an important distinction. It is a constant reminder to the faithful: no matter who you think you are, forget not that "Allah is greater". No matter what occupies your mind right now, forget not that "Allah is greater".
The only verb that comes close is takabbara which means "behaved arrogantly", but the consonants are too different to get mixed up.
And there is a "h" sound at the end of Madinah. The ة is not silent. There is a reason it has that shape, it is a ه with the dots of a ت. If you stop on this letter, you read it like an English "h", but if you continue speaking you read it like a "t". In a middle of an Arabic sentence, you would hear al-madinatu, al-madinata or al-madinati (depending on the grammatical case), and you would hear al-madinah if it is at the end of the sentence, or in isolation. In English, it is only normal to use Madinah as we are not in an Arabic sentence.
Personally I think Christianity will probably still be #1 by 2050. But it's very hard to say. The most optimistic prediction I've seen on the subject is that by 2038 the majority of people in the world will be either atheist, agnostic, non-religious, or only nominally religious. It's not really correct to call any of these things a religion, but still it would be very nice to see "none" at the top of a list of world's largest religious traditions by number of adherents.
It certainly doesn't mean "holy war" all of the time, but its wrong to think that it never means holy war. The question is written in a way that reflects this.
Other meanings also exist in the Qur'an, like preaching or doing good deeds, but they are rare. The meaning of struggle against one's inner soul is also found in some hadiths, it's not a recent interpretation, but it's true that some recent apologists paint it as being the primary meaning of jihad, which is wrong.
There is no such thing as "exterminating the infidels" and go read the definition of hypocrite in a dictionary. According to Islamic tradition, Muhammad was primarily a prophet. Being a political leader was secondary, and he waged war as a prophet, to expand Islam, not as a warlord.
Historically speaking, Muslims didn't have written laws, the rulers would appoint judges that judged according to their own interpretation. The Ottomans were the first to have a code of law in the Western sense, which they called kanun (from Greek kanon) and then the word qanun entered in Arabic and Islamic litterature. Instead of calling their law shariah, countries call it qanun and claim it is fully compliant with the Shariah.