(3) check out Balfour declaration
Also, Countries such as France, Bulgaria and Romania are countries which only the Jews from there immigrate to Israel, not non-jews. Ethiopia, Sudan and Tunisia are mostly refugees and not immigrants. The Country Sends most of the Sudanese people to refugee camps in the desert but the Ethiopians have a pretty big community in central Israel. Argentina is there because during WW2, lots of Jews escaped to America, in South America mostly Argentina and Brazil, so after the war I guess most of them decided to immigrate to Israel, the Jews homeland. Thx for Listening to My TedTalk about Israel's immigrants :)
I've said this twice already but these numbers are ONLY Jews making Aliyah. That includes the numbers from Ethiopia and Sudan. Though many Jews making Aliyah to Israel were coming from places where they were being heavily persecuted, Ethiopia very much included, but that doesn't make them any different from the Jews coming out of Russia, Poland, Germany, Iraq, or Egypt.